Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Disease
Lymph Node Biopsy
Staging of Hodgkin’s Disease
- The number and location of lymph nodes affected
- Whether the affected lymph nodes are on one or both sides of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the thin muscular sheet that separates the chest from the abdomen.
- Whether the disease has spread to other lymphatic tissues, such as the spleen
- Whether the disease has spread to the bone marrow, liver, or other places outside the lymphatic system
- Blood tests
- Imaging studies
- Additional biopsies of lymph nodes
- Biopsies of the liver , bone marrow , or other tissues
- Laparotomy—rarely done
- Stage I—cancer is found only in a single lymph node area, in the area immediately surrounding that node, or in a single organ
- Stage II—cancer involves more than one lymph node area on one side of the diaphragm
- Stage III—cancer involves lymph node regions above and below the diaphragm
- Stage IV—cancer involves one or more organs outside the lymph system or a single organ and a distant lymph node site
Casciato D. Manual of Clinical Oncology . 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Williams; 2009
Hodgkin disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated March 8, 2013. Accessed April 30, 2013.
Hodgkin lymphoma. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/hodgkin . Accessed April 30, 2013.